Distinguished Plenary Lectures

Development in urban sound environment: towards soundscape indices

Jian Kang
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Professor Jian Kang, FIOA, FASA, CEng, obtained his BEngArch and MSc from Tsinghua University and PhD from University of Cambridge. He recently joint UCL as Professor of Acoustics, after worked as Professor of Acoustics at the University of Sheffield since 2003. Previously he also worked at the University of Cambridge and the Fraunhofer Institute of Building Physics in Germany. He has worked in environmental and architectural acoustics for 30+ years, with 60+ engineering/consultancy projects, 70+ research projects, and 800+ publications. His work on acoustic theories, design guidance and products has brought improvements to the noise control in underground stations/tunnels and soundscape design in urban areas. He is Fellow of the UK Institute of Acoustics, and Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America. He chairs the Technical Committee for Noise of the European Acoustics Association, and EU COST Action on Soundscape of European Cities and Landscapes. He was awarded IOA Tyndall Medal 2008, and Peter Lord Award 2014, and he is recipient of the prestigious Advanced ERC Grant on Urban Soundscapes.

UCL Institute for Environmental Design and Engineering, The Bartlett,University College London (UCL),London WC1H 0NN, United Kingdom.

While in EU alone 80 million citizens are suffering from excessive environmental noise, the conventional approach, i.e. reduction of ‘sound level’, although much work has been carried out, does not always deliver the required improvements in quality of life. The growing field of soundscape is addressing this gap by considering sound environment as perceived, in context, with an interdisciplinary approach. However, soundscapes are hugely complex and measuring them as a basis for environmental design requires a step change to the discipline. This talk explores the need for developing ‘soundscape indices’ (SSID), in the movement from noise control to soundscape creation, adequately reflecting levels of human comfort. By analysing the soundscape design of urban open public spaces, the coherent steps for achieving this are also discussed, including characterising soundscapes by capturing soundscapes and establishing a comprehensive database; determining key factors and their influence on soundscape quality based on the database; developing, testing and validating soundscape indices; and demonstrating the applicability of the soundscape indices in the management of our sound environment.

Future Issues in the Field of Acoustics

Rama Bhat
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Rama Bhat is a Professor of Mechanical, Industrial and Aerospace Engineering at Concordia University, Montreal, Canada. He completed his Bachelor’s in Mechanical Engineering from Karnataka Regional Engineering College, Srinivasanagar (National Institute of Technology, Karnataka) in 1966, and his M.Tech. and Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from IIT Madras, India, in 1968 and 1972, respectively. Dr. Bhat’s research area covers Mechanical Vibrations, Vehicle Dynamics, Structural Acoustics, Rotor Dynamics, Dynamics of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems. He has trained more than 20 Ph.D. students in these areas since he joined the Department in 1979. He is a Fellow of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Institute of Canada, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Institution of Engineers (India). He served as the President of Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering in 2004-2006. He served as the Vice Provost at Concordia University in 2004-2008. He has been awarded the prestigious NASA Award for Technical Innovation for his contribution in developing “PROSSS—Programming Structured Synthesis System”. Dr. Bhat proposed the use of Boundary Characteristic Orthogonal Polynomials for use in the Rayleigh Ritz Method in 1985.

Mechanical, Industrial and Aerospace Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada

Acoustics is the vibration of air particles. The air particle environment provides the stiffness property depending on the nature of packing of the air particles and the density of air provides the necessary mass in order to cause vibration of air particles. Most of the time, the vibrations are initiated by the structures containing the air particles and hence most of the time sound is caused by the fluid structure interaction. Acoustics takes the characteristics of the fluid and the structure containing the fluid. Hence the field of acoustics becomes quite vast depending on the generation, propagation and receiving of sound. The issues in acoustics research are hinged on these three interactive phenomena. Technology influences all the above three aspects and the field of acoustics and progress in research in these areas generally define the major issues in acoustics research. The following is an attempt to expand on the three aspects of acoustics and define the current and future issues in the field of acoustics. The issues include structural acoustics as in pressure vessels, piping systems, panels used in partitions, combustion noise, fluid structure interaction such as in turbine noise due to flow of pressurized gasses, blade vibrations in fluid flow environments, aeroelasticity of aircraft wings and helicopter rotors, drilling noise in machine shops, mining. Ultrasonic drilling is a done under the influence of ultrasound environment. Advances in micromechanics and nanomechanics have opened up an entirely new field of acoustic sensing to obtain many hitherto unexploited areas such as sound health monitoring of large industrial systems, environmental acoustics, community noise, building acoustics and sound conditioning of large halls, acoustic mapping of large structures and environmental noise scattering, etc. Medical acoustics is an extremely vast area including bioacoustics. Manufacturing environments have many uses such as condition monitoring, better design by understanding noise generation and propagation etc. Some recently emerging specific applications are: Cell separation using their response and behavior to acoustic vibrations in a microfluidic device, distributed acoustic sensing as a result of miniaturized and reliable acoustic microphone sensors, medical acoustics such as in ultrasound imaging, manufacturing applications such as in ultrasonic drilling, in building acoustics with improved absorption materials and sound conditioning capabilities, in musical acoustics with improved analysis capabilities to understand music perception etc. Overall it is a repetitive and iterative process with innovation and research driving the applications and enhancement of analysis and measurement and recording. It should be kept in mind that acoustics has many facets and containing it within the framework of a limited vocabulary is difficult and is an impossible task. However, the purpose of this talk is to sensitize the way in which research drives the analysis and measurement and processing of sound, and vice versa. Future issues in the field of acoustics emanate from the current issues using new developments in technology.

Acoustic Black Holes: Recent Developments and Applications in Vibration Control

M.G. Prasad
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M.G. Prasad is Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering at the Stevens Institute of Technology. In his specializationareas of acoustics, vibrations and noise control, Dr. Prasad has published more than 100 publications in journals, conference proceedings and encyclopedias. He has received several awards for his papers. He has presented several invited papers in national and international conferences. He has been a director in the Institute of Noise Control Engineering (USA). He was the general chairman of NOISE-CON 91. He has served as UNDP expert for noise control projects. He is a consultant for several industries. Prof. Prasad was the recipient of 2015 Outstanding Educator Award by the Institute of Noise Control Engineering (USA). Dr. Prasad is a Fellow of four professional societies namely the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Acoustical Society of America, the Acoustical Society of India and Institute of Noise Control Engineering (USA). He received the 2017 Albert Nelson Marquis Lifetime Achievement Award from Who’s Who Publication Board.

Noise and Vibration Control Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken New Jersey 07030

Control of vibration and sound radiation from structures is very important in design of quieter mechanical systems. Recently a geometrical modificationfordesign of structures by embedding “Acoustic Black Holes” is used to control vibration and hence sound radiation. An acoustic black hole is a power-law tapered profile to reduce phase and group velocities of wave propagation to zero. Also, the vibration energy at the location of an acoustic black hole increases due to the gradual reduction of thickness. The major applications of this passive structural modification are many namely damping of vibration, noise reduction and vibration energy harvesting. The damping of vibration is achieved by placing damping material at the locations of acoustic black holes where vibration energy are concentrated. The suppression of structural vibration reduces sound in the near field which then results in noise reduction. The recent developments in vibration energy harvesting is based on the use of piezoelectric material as transducer to produce electrical output. In the case of vibrating structures, piezoelectric material is used where the acoustic black holes are embedded.As the vibration energyat these locations is increased which then yields increased electrical energy output for harvesting. This presentation includes recent developments in theory and applications of acoustic black holes to structural vibration control, noise reduction and energy harvesting.

The use of time reversal for source detection, defect localisation and perceptive structures

Jean-Louis Guyader
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Jean-Louis Guyader is presently Emeritus Professor at INSA, the National Institue of Applied Sciences in Lyon, France. He was the former Director of the Acoustics and Vibration Laboratory of INSA and founded in 2011 a small company, SONORHC, working on applications of vibroacoustics to engineering problems. His research focuses on vibration and acoustics, fluid-structure interaction in heavy and light fluids, inverse acoustics problems, theoretical methods for medium frequency vibro-acoustics problems, metamaterials and time reversal application in structures. He conducted numerous industrial applications of his researches in the fields of aeronautics, automotive industry, buildings and underwater military problems. He is Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America and of the International Institute of Acoustics and Vibration. He got the Chavasse prize and the Medal of the French Acoustical Society. He wrote two books and participated in several chapters of handbooks and collective books

Laboratoire Vibrations Acoustique, INSA de Lyon , 25 bis Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne 69621– France

Time Reversal (TR) concept is based on the symmetry of vibrations and acoustics phenomena associate to direct end reversed time. The main consequence of this time symmetry is the possibility of creating, from a measured response, time-reversed waves travelling from the measurement locations to the place where the primary waves were created. In the lecture, bases and limitations of Time Reversal concept are presented. Contrary to the standard inverse method, no regularisation is needed. Applications in biomechanics, military purposes and ultrasonics have been developed in the literature; this lecture focuses on engineering applications in the field of acoustics and structural vibration. The phenomenon of focalization is presented experimentally, and it is shown that, contrary to standard inverse problems for source detection, structural complexity renders Time Reversal technique more efficient. The automotive industry is a field of interest for source detection. The application of TR technique to detect vibro acoustic sources responsible for the noise produced in a car in operating conditions is of major interest. As an example, with TR technique one can clearly detect if the noise is coming from the airborne or structure-borne path, results on this case are presented. A second application of TR, is defect detection: when a structure has no defect, playing recorded time-reversed signals produce focalization of vibrations at primary source locations when the structure has defects the wave propagation travel is modified, and the focalization is no more observed, indicating the presence of a defect. Results obtained on a wind turbine blade are presented. A third application is related to the concept of perceptive mechanical media that can detect if a modification is occurring in its environment. This opens a gate to a lot of applications, in particular, the communication with tactile structures. Some experimental results .


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