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Ocean acoustic propagation in the open ocean is a strong function of the oceanographic structure (temperature/salinity) and the surface and seafloor characteristics. With a strong sound channel in warm temperate waters, sound can travel a very long range. For low frequency propagation, particularly that associated with earthquakes or large baleen whales, the sound interacts more with the seafloor, and the propagation can be considered shallow water propagation. The impact of the seafloor topology on propagation leads to strong 3-dimensional propagation effects. Using a 3-dimensional variant of the Range Dependent Acoustics Model (RAM, Collins JASA 1993), we will demonstrate the impact of bathymetry and oceanography on propagation of low frequency sound in the Indian Ocean. Emphasis will be on the United Nations Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, observatory hydrophones located on Diego Garcia and the Crozet Islands.
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