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It is common for two-wheeler vehicles to use silencer chambers of semi-circular geometry due to constraints on the physical space available. To deliver high levels of exhaust noise attenuation in such confined space is challenging, particularly at low-frequencies because dissipative elements are ineffective in this frequency range. Therefore, one is forced to rely on reactive elements to meet the design challenge. This paper reviews design methodologies of reactive semi-circular mufflers, and examines trade-off between the attenuation level and frequency range over which such mufflers are effective. The investigation includes the analysis of single- and dual-chamber straight-through muffler configurations with extensions at inlet and outlet, and use of a perforated airway which is necessarily offset from the center of semi-circular cross-section. Parametric studies are carried out using an optimized two-dimensional finite element (FE) and numerical mode-matching (NMM) approach, whereby it is shown that one can achieve significant attenuation at low frequencies as well as obtain a broadband transmission loss spectrum covering the entire frequency range of interest.
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