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Underwater Communication is a key technology to enable the efficient realization of various applications in the field of research, defence, surveillance, collection of oceanic data, disaster management, marine life study, trade, security, etc. The electromagnetic (EM) waves, which are generally employed in communication systems, is not suited for underwater communication as it cannot travel a long distance in water due to a high amount of attenuation and power loss in a liquid medium. An alternative to the EM waves is the use of acoustic waves, and hence, they are used for communication in the underwater medium. The acoustic waves are longitudinal waves that propagate by means of adiabatic compression and decompression and travel in the direction of vibration. The performance of any communication system depends on the received signal accuracy at user-end-point. But one of the major challenges faced in Underwater Acoustic (UWA) Communication is the presence of ambient noise in channel resulting from various environmental and non-environmental factors. The noise sources can be broadly classified into two categories, prevailing noise sources, and spontaneous noise sources. The UW prevailing noise sources include the thermal waves, surface waves, turbulence while the spontaneous noise sources include aquatic and marine life, shipping and submarine traffic, on-shore noise, etc. The receiver for an underwater Acoustic communication system has to be designed in such a manner that it nullifies the effects of the ambient noise and gives best accuracy in terms of message signal reception. So, it is very important to determine the Statistical Distribution that models the underwater acoustic noise best, so that suitable techniques can be devised to reduce the error in UWA communication, by designing an optimum receiver. Unfortunately, the receivers for underwater acoustic communication are presently designed with an assumption that the ambient noise is Normally distributed, that is the noise follows Gaussian Distribution. But as per the existing literature, the Underwater Acoustic Noise (UWAN) is often affected by impulsive components of ambient noise and in that case, the traditional assumption of normality is questionable. Our study is focussed on checking the competency of assumption of Gaussian Distribution to model the noise for receivers and find another Statistical distribution that models the UWA noise better.
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