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Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by abnormally high levels of glucose in blood. The global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980, rising from 4.7% to 8.5% in the adult population. Hence, regular blood glucose monitoring is critical for the management of Diabetes. The current methods for blood glucose monitoring are invasive and also suffer from false positives. In this study, we have analysed that ultrasonics could find innovative place in the non-invasive diagnostics of Diabetes Mellitus. Type 1 Diabetes is characterized by the infiltration of auto reactive T-cells into the pancreatic islets (insulitis), local inflammation and destruction of insulin-producing β-cells. In most of the patients suffering from Type-1 diabetes, inspite of the presence of insulitis and immunological abnormalities there is an asymptomatic phase preceding the clinical presentation of the disease which lasts several years. This asymptomatic phase can be attributed to the significant levels of glucose mediated insulin release and the presence of enough number of β-cells that efficiently regulate the blood glucose levels. Even though the pancreatic islets represent only 1-2% of the pancreatic mass they receive significantly high amounts of blood volume because they are highly vascularized. The microvasculature of the islets changes with glycemic changes and this very property can be exploited by Ultrasound technique as a means for measuring pancreatic blood flow dynamics. Studies have shown that contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can effectively measure the changes in the islet blood flow dynamics in response to Streptozotocin-induced islet injury and in non-obese diabetic mice (NOD) prior to diabetes onset. Subjects suffering from diabetes also exhibit changes in the morphology, volume and fat content of pancreas in comparison to non-diabetic subjects. Ultrasound can be used as an efficient technique for evaluating these parameters for the effective diagnosis of Diabetes. Ultrasound has been extensively used for the estimation of fetal weight, diagnosis of congenital malformation and monitoring of diabetic pregnant patients for manangement of Gestational Diabetes. In this paper we have reviewed and have concluded that ultrasound may be a potential technique for the timely diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus which can prove to be instrumental in the prevention/treatment of this disease that plagues many lives.
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