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Passive acoustic monitoring in the coastal and deep waters of the ocean helps in understanding the acoustic environment of the region which will further be useful for acoustical oceanographic applications and surveillance purposes. Continuous measurements of Ocean ambient noise at specific locations covering different seasons, obtained from passive monitoring systems are utilized in geo-acoustics and bioacoustics. An autonomous passive acoustic monitoring system developed by NIOT India, has been deployed in shallow waters off the East and West coast and time series data have been analysed in detail to classify the geophonic, biophonic and anthropogenic sources of noise. The autonomous system consisting of a vertical linear array of hydrophones, data acquisition system and power pack scan be operated by availing a mechanized boat, not required a big ship and real time transmission of processed data has been enabled through different modes of communication such as RF/WIFI/GPRS/INSAT and demonstrated. Maintaining the system in coastal waters has been a challenge due to entanglement by fishing nets, formation of barnacles etc. Overcoming these challenges, the system has been operated at many sites and the data have been used for deriving the environmental parameters. In order to carry out source localization in underwater, vector sensors which measure acoustic pressure and particle velocity are required. NIOT has developed a vector sensor and successfully tested. Then an array of vector sensors has been developed and tested in Idukki lake and in shallow waters for two weeks. The data obtained from vector sensor array have been used for estimation of direction of arrival from specific sources by using conventional beam forming algorithms. Now the algorithm for estimation of range is being developed. In future the autonomous passive acoustic monitoring system will be replaced by vector sensor arrays for source localization and coastal surveillance applications.
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