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Introduction The most relevant acoustic parameters for the perception and production of vowels are the frequencies of the first two formants, F1 and F2 (Hillenbrand, Getty, Clark, & Wheeler, 1995). These formant frequencies change in a fairly predictable way as a function of the movements of the articulators and as a function of changes in the three dimensional configuration of the vocal tract that result from these articulatory movements. In general, the frequency of F2 increases and that of F1 decreases as the tongue moves forward (e.g., to form the vowel /i/) and the frequency of F2 decreases as the tongue moves backward (e.g., to form the vowels /u/ and /a/). Also, the frequency of F1 decreases when the tongue is elevated (e.g., to form the vowels / i/ and /u/) and increases when the tongue is lowered, alone or in concert with a downward movement of the jaw (e.g., to form the vowel /a/). Furthermore, the frequencies of both F1 and F2 decrease when the lips are rounded (e.g., to form the vowel /u/) and increase when the lips are retracted or become unrounded (e.g., to form the vowels /i/ and /a/) (Kent et al., 1999). In English, the VSA is usually constructed by the Euclidean distances between the F1 and F2 coordinates of the corner vowels /i/, /u/, and /a/ (triangular VSA), or the corner vowels /i/, / u/, /a/, and /ae/ (quadrilateral VSA) in the F1-F2 plane (Kent & Kim, 2003). The acoustic vowel quadrilateral area and configuration demarcated by the point vowels /i, u, a, æ / define an acoustic space that is reflective of the articulatory working space for vowels (Vorperian & Kent, 2007). Acoustic Vowel Quadrilateral Area = 0.5 x [(F2i x F1ae + F2ae x F1a + F2a x F1u + F2u x F1i) - (F1i x F2ae + F1ae x F2a + F1a x F2u + F1u x F2i) The frequency values were used to create vowel quadrilateral plots, including F1-F2, F1-F3. FCR3 is the inverse of vowel articulation index (VAI3) deduced with the formula which was given by Sapir, Ramig, Spielman and Fox in 2010. Formant Centralization Ratio (FCR3) = (F2u + F2a +F1i +F1u) ÷ (F2i + F1a). Need There were limited research on the acoustic aspects of Kashmiri Language. Hence there was necessity to establish the norms to understand articulatory characteristics of Kashmiri Language. Aim & Objectives The present study aimed to establish the vowel space area functions VSA or the F1-F2 (Formant Centralization Ratio (FCR3) among the typical adults in Kashmiri Language. Method Participants A total of 64 individuals took part in the study. Group I had thirty two males in the age range of 18 years to 35 years. Group II had thirty two females of the same age range as males. The Procedure Speech samples of phonemes /a/,/i/,/u/ and /æ/ were obtained in the isolation. Samples were recorded with a high quality condenser microphone at a distance of 12cm away from the mouth. The stimuli were further analyzed with Praat software. The frequencies of the first three formants were used to extract the function of Vowel Space area. Results & Discussion Results suggested that there was significant difference of Formant values of phoneme /i/ between males and females. Formant frequencies (F1 & F2) of phoneme /i/ correlates with the height and advancement of the tongue in the production of the vowel. Other formant values were not significant. Formant Centralization Ratio (FCR3) was significantly different with a statistical significance level of 0.11 between the groups in Independent samples Mann Whitney U test. Conclusion The present study made an attempt to establish the norms for acoustic vowel quadrilateral space and Formant centralization Ration in typical Kashmiri speakers. The findings was an attempt to understand and quantise the articulatory characteristics of Kashmiri Vowels.
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